The History of Computers and Its Development from Time to TimeThe History of Computers and Its Development from Time to Time

Computers Most of the activities carried out by humans in this modern era are carried out using computers. Especially during a pandemic like this, where all activities are transformed completely online. Computer equipment that was originally intended only as a means of supporting work, has now become a necessity that must be owned by the community. Before being equipped with sophisticated features like today, the development of computers began with a simple innovation that was born in the 1800s.

The Emergence of The First Computer

The computer was invented in 1822 by an English mathematician, Charles Babbage. Initially, Babbage intended to create a steam-powered calculating machine that could calculate tables of numbers. The machine he later named “Difference Engine 0” and is predicted to be the world’s first computer. The form of Difference Engine 0 itself is very much different from most modern computer models today.

However, the working principle of this machine is the same as a modern computer, which is capable of calculating numbers or computing. Until 1890, an inventor named Herman Hollerith designed a card system that was able to calculate the results of the US census conducted in 1880.

The Forerunner of The Digital Computers

The forerunner of the first digital computer was developed in 1930. It was Alan Turing who first developed the machine. He is a successful mathematical researcher developing a machine that can execute a set of commands.

The first digital computer was developed by Konrad Zuse, a German mechanical engineer. Before the second world war broke out, Zuse built the first programmable digital computer called the Z1. In 1936 in his parents’ living room in Berlin, he assembled metal plates, pins, and created a machine that could perform addition and subtraction calculations.

Although these early computer models were destroyed during World War II, Zuse is credited with creating the first digital computer. During the second world war, in 1943, John Mauchly succeeded in creating a machine called the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC).

The Birth of Programming Language

In 1954, a programming language was created for the first time by a female computer scientist named Grace Hopper. This programming language called COBOL is here to help computer users in conveying commands in English.

Because previously, computer users could only give instructions to the computer using a collection of rows of numbers. Since then, programming languages ​​have developed along with the evolution of computers. Subsequently, a new programming language called FORTRAN was created, which was developed by the IBM programming team led by John Backus in 1954. As a technology-focused company, IBM’s ambition is to lead the global computer trend. The company began creating a device called the IBM 650 to begin mass marketing.

Until 1965, computers were known as a supporting tool for mathematicians, engineers, and the general public. The computer is known as Programma 101. When compared to ENIAC, the size of the Programma 101 is much more compact. This computer is the size of a typewriter, weighs 29 kg, and is equipped with a built-in printer.

Personal Computers

The 1970s can be regarded as the era of the birth of the personal computer. Marked by the emergence of the Xerox Alto, a personal computer that can run commands such as sending e-mail and printing documents. One thing that is most different from the Xerox Alto is its design which resembles a modern computer. Because, this computer is equipped with a mouse, keyboard, and screen.

In the same year, several major discoveries also occurred. Some of them, such as the creation of diskettes, ethernet, and Dynamic Access Memory (DRAM) chips. Meanwhile, Apple was founded in 1976 by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak. The two also introduced the Apple I, the first single-circuit computer.

The personal computer design was then perfected by IBM, through a device called Acorn. This computer is equipped with an Intel chip, two diskette slots, a keyboard, and a color monitor screen. Various other inventions were later discovered in 1983. The official CD-ROM was present as a storage device that was able to accommodate data up to 550 MB.

In the same year, Microsoft officially introduced Word, followed by Apple which released the Macintosh in 1984. The Macintosh is known as the first computer that can be controlled using a mouse and is equipped with a graphical user interface.

As if not wanting to be left behind, Microsoft has also launched a Windows operating system that offers the advantages of multi-tasking and is equipped with a graphical interface. Apple then spawned an innovation called the Powerbook, a series of portable laptops that can be taken anywhere.

2000’s Computers

Entering the 21st century, the pace of development of computer equipment is increasing rapidly, along with technological developments. The use of diskettes and CD-ROMs has begun to be excluded

Development Mobile Phones History from Time to TimeDevelopment Mobile Phones History from Time to Time

Phones Smartphones are becoming one of the gadgets that are increasingly popular every year. Now everyone has started to make smartphones one of their basic needs. Starting from children who are still in elementary school to adults who already have this one gadget. The number of brands and types of cheap smartphones is one of the supporting factors why this gadget is so popular. As a smartphone user, have you ever wondered when the first appearance of mobile phones was? If this question pops into your mind, consider the following review of the history of mobile phone development from its inception to the present.

The History of Cell Phones in the 70s

The first mobile phones appeared in the world, namely in the 70s, in 1973 to be precise. Martin Cooper became an important figure who introduced cell phones. His figure is one of the important people in the telecommunications business in the United States. Yes, this sophisticated object first appeared in New York. Motorola DynaTAC became the cellphone that Cooper used at that time to communicate.

The History on the 80s

10 years after the emergence of the Motorola DynaTAC, in 1983 the latest generation of mobile phones emerged, namely the Motorola DynaTAC 8000X. In contrast to the 1973 Motorola DynaTAC, this new mobile phone was the first to be officially commercialized. The public can already use it as a medium of communication. Although it has undergone several updates, this phone still has a fairly large weight, around 793 grams.

The History on the 90s

Compared to cell phones from the 70s and 80s, the phones that appeared in the 90s are more sophisticated. Telecommunications companies continue to develop and renew. In fact, for the first time appeared a cell phone that can be used to make phone calls. But do not expect if you can use this phone to surf in cyberspace.

Besides being able to be used to receive and make phone calls, cell phones that appeared in 1992 can also be used to send short messages in the form of SMS. In the same year, the IBM Simon appeared, which is said to be the world’s first smartphone. You can use this smartphone for telephones, fax machines, pagers, and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs).

The History of Phones in the 2000s

The term smartphone or smartphone is increasingly popular in this era. How not, the emergence of the Sharp J-SH04 is increasingly attracting public attention. The reason, this smartphone is equipped with a camera in it. Yes, the Sharp J-SH04 is the first mobile phone in the world that allows users to take photos. It doesn’t stop there, this phone is also equipped with various advanced features in it, you know.

This year, Apple‘s legendary smartphone began to appear, namely the iPhone. The emergence of this expensive smartphone brand was welcomed by the public, especially those in the upper-middle class. How not, the emergence of the iPhone presents a new concept, namely a touch screen smartphone. This concept is different from other mobile phone brands that still carry the concept of a keypad.

The History of Smartphone in the 2010s

Believe it or not, the early 2010s became the heyday of BlackBerry. You will only be considered cool if you have used this one device. Because of its popularity, Indonesia is considered to be the 2nd largest Blackberry user in the world, you know. Unfortunately, the release of iOS and Android devices made BlackBerry start to lose its popularity.

In this era too, the speed of the internet network is also getting higher. Smartphone users can now enjoy faster internet on the 4G network. However, the use of the 4G network can only be accessed by smartphones that support it. It doesn’t stop there, at the end of the 2010s, many devices that support 5G networks have emerged. Could it be that you are one of them who can already access the internet on the 5G network?

The Development of Robotic Technology Takes Over Human WorkThe Development of Robotic Technology Takes Over Human Work

Robotic TechnologyThe University of Oxford researcher casts a somber picture at the industrial hub of the United States. Known as the Belt of Rust – cities such as Flint, Detroit, and Cleveland have previously spearheaded growth by the manufacturing sector. Dr. Frey said workers in these cities were being beaten by robotic technology. So what would happen if machines replaced us?

Advantages of Robotic Technology

If workers lose their jobs, they will not pay taxes and in most western countries they will be able to claim unemployment benefits. This weighs heavily on the state. In the US, 48% of federal income comes from personal income taxes, and 35% comes from social insurance taxes – only 9% comes from corporate taxes.

To cover the shortfall in income from income tax, many parties support the imposition of a tax on robots.

Resistance to Robot Technology

In 2013, Dr. Frey estimated that nearly 50% of jobs in the US were at risk in the next 30 years due to advances in AI and robotic technology. Among these are industrial sector jobs, legal administration, and truck drivers.

“We are going to see resistance to automation, as we have seen with globalization. Truck drivers cannot be transferred to China, but these jobs can be replaced by machines,” said Frey.

Tax

Two years ago, billionaire, philanthropist, and Microsoft founder Bill Gates pitched the idea of ​​a robot tax in an interview with Quartz magazine.

“There are taxes associated with automation. Right now, a human worker who earns $50,000 in a factory is going to be subject to income tax, social benefits tax, all that stuff. If robots did the same thing, you’d think we’d be taxing robots.” on the same level,” Gates said.

Tech billionaire Elon Musk also supports the taxation of robots. The basics are simple: robots are taxed and the funds are used to finance health care and education.

Business Goals

“You don’t have to physically invent robots. You can apply for automation taxes. Fewer-employed businesses should be looked after. At the same time the government should reduce labor taxes,” said Ryan Abbott, professor of law and healthcare at the University of Surrey, UK.

He proposes a tax on human-like robots – Abbott refers to the growing use of AI. Proponents of the tax say the additional income could help fund skills programs.

This Robotic Technology Eliminates Many Jobs

But large-scale job losses have yet to occur and the future isn’t that bleak. While Carl Frey remains supportive of his 2013 forecast. A project PwC created last year shows that in the UK, job losses due to automation can be replaced by the creation of new jobs. The sports of cricket and football now use technology related to important decisions that were previously made by referees. The use of technology helps improve the quality of decision-making. But this does not make the referees redundant, because of the creation of additional technician work. However, the loss of jobs in factories is a different case.